One such heat-related illness is heat fatigue. It's generally caused by fluid loss and responds well to rehydration and rest. Because an inadequate diet or caloric intake is common with the summer athlete, it too should be evaluated when sluggishness and fatigue are experienced. Like heat-related fatigue, heat cramps are also a result of insufficient fluid intake. These painful muscle spasms generally occur in hot and/or humid environments when the athlete overexerts him or herself.
Heat exhaustion is another common heat-related illness experienced by athletes in the summer. Simply speaking, you're working the body so hard it's just too damn hot to carry on! Technically speaking, it's a group of symptoms that occur when your body's rate of heat production is greater than it's rate of heat dissipation. Symptoms generally begin to occur when the body's core temperature rises above 102-F. The onset is sudden with the athlete becoming clumsy as well as confused. Additional symptoms include a headache, dizziness, chills, nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Signs of heat exhaustion are an ash-gray color of the skin, lowered blood pressure, and a rapid pulse. Immediate rehydration, body cooling, and rest are crucial.
Heat stroke can result when the body's temperature rises above 105-F, resulting in extensive tissue damage to the body. Often, the onset of heat stroke can be abrupt with the athlete experiencing a severely altered mental status or possibly a sudden loss of consciousness. Death can occur rapidly unless rapid cooling and rehydration are immediately performed. Full body immersion in cool water with simultaneous rehydration with cool fluids is most effective.